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Standard bearers: Horticultural exports and private standards in Africa

Private standards are set by the food producing industry and retailers, mainly to assure food safety and good agricultural practice. However their proliferation is a major concern in developing countries where these standards are regarded as too expensive for smallholders to comply with. So what really are the benefits and costs of private standards for small-scale producers? This publication presents state-of-the-art research and analysis to explore the issues surrounding smallholders, private standards, and exports from Africa. Standard bearers looks at actual evidence of smallholder exclusion and the costs and benefits of inclusion in demanding export markets. It also explores opportunities to adapt requirements and develop approaches with lower costs to make private standards more beneficial to, and inclusive of, small-scale growers. 
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