EnAlgae was a Strategic Initiative of the INTERREG IVB North West Europe programme, with activities taking place between late 2011 to December 2015. It brought together 19 partners and 14 observers across 7 EU Member States with the aim of developing sustainable technologies for algal biomass production and quantifying the scope for commercial algae production for energy and other products in North West Europe. EnAlgae brings together 19 partners and 14 observers across seven EU Member States. It aims to reduce CO2 emissions and dependency on unsustainable energy sources in North West Europe. he project is developing sustainable technologies for algal biomass production, bioenergy and greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation, taking them from pilot facilities through to market-place products and services.
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EnAlgae brings together 19 partners and 14 observers across seven EU Member States. It aims to reduce CO2 emissions and dependency on unsustainable energy sources in North West Europe.
The project is developing sustainable technologies for algal biomass production, bioenergy and greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation, taking them from pilot facilities through to market-place products and services.
By developing and sharing nine pilot-scale facilities across the territory, cost and access barriers can be overcome. The facilities will also give plant operators the ability to experience the full range of physical parameters (ranging from rural countryside to industrialised areas) that are present within the region.
Project participants will also benefit from financial and political support and can jointly develop and share best-practice models. In turn, these best-practice models may then influence their respective national, regional or local policies.
The project was formally approved by the INTERREG IVB NWE Programme in March 2011 and officially ends on 30th June 2015.
As fossil fuel resources continue to decline around the globe, it is vital that new sources of fuel are identified and developed.
The North West Europe region is characterised by discrete industrialised zones and an extensive rural landscape containing active agricultural, fisheries and tourism sectors, each of which employ a large workforce. As a result of this high density of people and the activities undertaken within these sectors, the environment and current energy sources are placed under considerable pressure. So much so, that in 2008, the region is said to have accounted for over 40 per cent of total EU27 GHG emissions (EC GHG Inventory, 2009).
Many species of microalgae have high lipid contents that can readily extracted and converted to biodiesel. Similarly, their high content of fermentable sugars makes them suitable for bioethanol production. Microalgae can therefore generate a whole suite of bioenergy products:
- Straight Vegetable Oil (SVO)
- Aviation fuel
- Hydrocracking to traditional transport fuels
A recent breakthrough in making biofuel from seaweed provides another potentially viable source of algal-based biofuels.
When considering the use of land-based bioenergy crops (as an alternative fuel source) within the region, territorial challenges are imposed by intensive land use and diverse physical environments. Algal biotechnologies are said to address these problems as algae do not compete for food crop resources, can mitigate GHG’s and are adaptable to diverse environments.
Each member state in North West Europe is thought to encounter similar temperature and solar insolation regimes. This means that similar technological approaches for algal biomass and bioenergy production and GHG mitigation can be used.
Any initiative which aims to positively impact upon the region’s resource management in respect of algal biotechnologies will require a high degree of transnational cooperation. A number of integrated measures will need to be adopted on a large scale, and the coordination of activities, effective stakeholder engagement and strategic planning within the sector is in need of improvement.
Innovation within EnAlgae therefore stems partly from project participants extending and sharing their particular technological innovations as part of a NWE network, for example by adapting ecologically based mathematical models into a specially developed ICT-based decision support tool.
The term algae covers a wide range of diverse organisms that can be generally described as eukaryotic protists (a difficult group to define), that are distinct from plants but are typically photosynthetic and aquatic. They can either be microscopic single-celled microalgae or larger more complex multi-cellular macroalgae (seaweeds). They can be found worldwide in both freshwater and marine habitats across a wide range of environments. Like plants, the majority of algae use photosynthesis to capture light energy to convert inorganic substances into simple sugars and then other molecules.
A long history of use
Seaweed was being eaten at least 1,500 years ago in Japan and it remains an important food in many cultures where it is valued for its high mineral content (e.g. Nori and laverbread). Closer to home in Europe, kelp was farmed extensively from the 17th to 19th Centuries for processing into soda for the linen industry and into iodine for medicinal purposes. Microalgae have been used for decades as a food supplement (e.g. spirulina) and as a feedstock for farmed shellfish and finfish. Compounds extracted from both microalgae and seaweed today find their way into everyday foods, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals.
Exploring the power of algae
Algal products are again being commercially explored and developed with the help of a growing global industry using the latest algal biotechnologies. This involves the mass cultivation of micro- and macroalgae and conversion of the harvested biomass into a range of value-added products. The EnAlgae project aims to develop technologies that will be both economically-viable and environmentally-friendly ways so that the production algal biomass can be rolled out on industrial scales.
Meeting future clean energy needs
A big driver of algal biotechnology is the search for clean energy. EC legislation to increase the proportion of energy generated from renewable sources (EC Directive 2009/28/EC) provides a clear incentive to reduce our current reliance on fossil fuels.