UAB “Arvi fertis” is a member of ARVI enterprises group. Its main operations are fertilizer production and trade, freight forwarding services, trade in coal and technical salt. Fertilizers produced by „Arvi fertis” are different from others in that all the substances necessary for a plant – nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and various trace elements – are obtained in one granule. The modern complex granular fertilizer technology was obtained from the company Sackett and Sons. The American technologies are being constantly improved, and at the moment the factory can produce fertilizers, adapted to different cultures and regions, from about 150 formulae. Farmers can be offered a practically unlimited amount of formulae, adapted to different cultures.
The history of the ARVI fertiliser business started in 1994. In that year, the company began to sell potassium fertilisers. The production of blended fertilisers started later, and in 2001 the first production plant was built and launched in Marijampole for granulated complex NPK fertilisers. Now ARVI fertiliser business unites the factories in Lithuania and Russia as well as the fertiliser sales and transhipment terminal in Romania. Until now, the company is the sole manufacturer of complex fertilisers in the Baltic countries.
The company has acquired the modern, waste-free technology of complex pellet fertilisers from the U.S. company Sackett and Sons. The technology for ARVI’s complex fertiliser production was in part chosen because of some important factors: the possibility of preparing a wide range of formulas adapted to the needs of different plants and regions. ARVI factories can produce over 250 of complex fertiliser formulas, however, new compositions are constantly developed, adapting them to any crops and soil. During the manufacturing process all the materal necessary for a plant is balanced in one pellet: nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and other trace elements. We produce the fertiliser formulas popular all over the world, such as NPK 15-15-15+S, NPK 8-20-30+S, NPK 5-15-25+S, the basis of which is made of potassium chloride and diammonium phosphate. Our speciality, however, is the production of exclusive fertilisers: chlorine-free fertilisers for cultivation of various vegetables and fruit, special fertilisers for cultivation of sugar beet, etc.
The exclusivity of compound fertilizers manufactured by ARVI is high agronomic efficiency. The produced fertilisers are nitrate-free, therefore nitrogen is not washed out into the ground waters and the nutrients remain in the soil. This ensures healthier yield of higher quality and the ground water is not polluted. ARVI fertilizers not only improve or restore the basic properties of the soil, but also can be supplemented with biological additives. Due to the basic and secondary macro and micro nutrients contained in the fertilizers: nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, sulphur, magnesium, boron and zinc synergy, the plants efficiently absorb the nutrients.
ARVI fertiliser business belongs to the International Fertilizer Industry Association IFA (International Fertilizer Industry Association); the company owns twelve fertiliser production patents. The companies have international quality management system and environmental management system certificates. The company has been awarded with medals and awards for high quality production in the international exhibitions.
The ARVI company produces fertilisers that are exported to Western and Eastern Europe, Asia, Africa, and South America.
The outstanding feature ofthe complex fertilisers produced by Arvi fertis istheir high agronomic efficiency. This is because:
- They are specialised and balanced to meet the individual needs of the plants, and therefore result in a more stable crop and a greater additional yield
- They contain no nitrates, therefore ensuring a healthier and better quality of cropwithout contributing to ground water pollution
- They improve or restore the main characteristics of the soil because they are enriched with additional biological additives, that stimulate plant enzymatic activityand reduce the loss of nutrients (especially nitrogen)
- The special steam granulation production technologyallows for the synergy of primary and secondary macroelements and microelements,which are contained in the fertilisers in two forms of nitrogen (one fast-acting, the other long-lasting) to ensure quick solubility of the granules and a better and more effective assimilation of the nutritional elements
Plants take their nutrients from the soil. If there is not a sufficient amount of nutrients in the soil, the plant cannot produce abundant fruit, or lush flowers and leaves. For the plant, nutrients are necessary not only for a good crop, but also for survivingduring the winter months and for the start of spring growth.
Complex chlorine-free fertilisers are recommended for all plants. However, we have noted that chlorine-free fertilisers have drawn a particular focus from people who are looking for not only traditional, but healthy and environmentally friendly solutions for theirplants, gardens or farms.
Arvi fertis chlorine-free fertilisers are very well suited for the fertilisation of vegetables, potatoes, and other garden plants. Our fertilisers are granulated, making themeasy to spread either manually or mechanically.It is very easy for plants to accept all of the nutrients from chlorine-freefertilisers, and this fertilisationcan particularly improvethe appearance of the fruit and vegetables, and allow for the aromatic properties of flowers to become richer.
Arvi fertis is the only fertiliser production company in the Baltic States to produce a granule form of fertilisers, where all the ingredients a plant needs are combined in a balanced form, including: nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and various microelements. After the fertiliseris distributed, the granules allow the nutrients to spread into the soil evenly, and the nutritional elements contained in the chlorine-free fertilisersallow for better plant absorption.
Chlorine-free fertilisers are the most ecological form of fertiliser.In addition to protecting the environment and microflora by choosing these fertilisers, individuals can also help to protect their skin from drying out, and can aid those predisposed to allergies. These fertilisers protect the plant from diseases, allowing for longer cropstorage and ensuring that the nutritional characteristics of the plants stay valuablefor longer. Thus, the assimilation of vitamins from plant crops is maximized without any harm to the body. However, it should be noted that all plants naturally accumulate harmful substances, which should be removed during the food preparation process.
This can be achieved in various ways. For example, anabandoned and immature plant will contain more nitrates than a flourishing one. Also, plants usually have the biggest content of nitrates in the morning. This fact can be taken into account at harvesting time. When eating vegetables, fruits and herbs, keep in mind that nitrates are water-soluble, so rinsing plantsbefore cooking will eliminate almost half of these components.
Around the world, there is an increasing focus on environmental sustainability, better food quality and human health. People need to cultivate a variety of fruits, vegetables and herbs to achieve their productivity goals. This is why, due to the lack of nutrients in the soil, “Arvi fertis” fertilisers can provide effective assistance throughout this process.
The sowing of winter crops is becoming increasingly popular. In lighter soils, triticale and rye can be sown, and in soil that is more productive winter wheat, requiring more care and effort, is often sown. Winter wheat, in many farmers’ opinion, is the most common and the most valuable crop to ensure theeconomic stability of a farm. Winter wheat is popular because it is very versatilein its uses, and it can be grown throughout different regions. Compared to spring wheat, farmers also appreciate a greater productive potential because these plants are better able to use autumn and spring moisture. However, winter wheat is quite demanding in terms of soil fertility, because it consumes a large amount of nutrients. For example, forevery 7.0 t/ha of grain, the plants use about 150 kg of nitrogen, 54 kg phosphorus and 70 kg of potassium.Farmers who decide to remove the wheat straw losein addition about 54 kg of nitrogen, 20 kg of phosphorus and 80 kg of potassium. As a result,farmers face aconsiderable loss of soil nutrients, and therefore we always advise farmers to leave the straw in the fields and destroy it with the use of biological preparations.
For a long time, farmers have been convinced that better winter plant survival and betterwinter wheat productivity can onlybe expected after: the correct choosing of a plant variety appropriateto thegrowing conditions; the appropriate and timely use of plant protection products; and, most importantly, fertilisation in accordance with thesoil test results and the planned crop.For farmers, it is not easy to make a decision about which fertiliser to use before sowing time, because there are a very large variety of different fertilisers on offer. However, the range of high qualityfertilisers is limited.
Arvi fertis can recommend a specific fertiliserto farmers, taking into accountthe region in which the fertiliser will be used, and the soils specifics(i.e. their richness for phosphorus and potassium, their acidity and their humus levels).After rigorous scientific experiments and farm observations, specialists and consultants have found that even after using a reduced rate of Arvi fertis fertilisers, winter wheat growth at the tillering stage was higher, when compared to the effectiveness of higher rates of selected control fertilisers with lower phosphorus solubility levels. After spreading identical rates of Arvi fertis fertilisers andselected controlfertilisers, the specialists noted that the weight of the plant at the tillering stage was practically identical, and there were no significant differences inthe assessment of the dry matter content. However, the first advantages of Arvi fertis fertiliserwere indicated afteran evaluation of the productive tillering capacity. After using a minimum fertilisationrate of the Arvi fertis fertilisers, the amount of productive stems was 60% morewhen compared to plants using the control fertilisers; and after using an average rate for fertilisation ofthe control fertiliserand a minimum rate of Arvi fertis fertiliser, the amount of productive stems was 53% higher.
After an evaluation of the dynamics andcrop structure elements of winter wheat, the scientists found that after using a minimum rate of Arvi fertis fertilisers, the number of small ears in each larger ear was 4% higher. However, the performed calculations showed an unexpected result after fertilisation with a higher rate of the control fertiliser and the minimum rate of the Arvi fertis fertiliser:the number of small ears was 11% higher when using the “Arvi fertis”fertiliser. Using the Arvi fertis fertiliser, the number of grains in the ears was also higherby 5 to 9%. Those facts show the effectiveness of the fertilisers produced by the company. Farmers and business professionalswereespecially interested in the grain productivity results. After harvesting, the obvious advantages of using the minimum rate of Arvi fertis fertiliserwere evident: the grain crop was 20% higher, when compared to the same rate of the control fertiliser. Even after using a higher control fertiliser rate, the grain crop was 17% higher when using the minimum rate of Arvi fertis fertiliser.
These results were surprising, but all fell into place after further research into the chemical composition of the plants. It turns out that the efficiency of the Arvi fertis fertiliser is significantly higher, when compared to the efficiency of the control fertiliser. At their full maturity stage, the ratio of the nutrients N:P2O5:K2O in the plants was indicated as 1.0:0.4:1.2. In other cases, a deficiency in plants fornitrogen, phosphorus and potassium has clearly been noted. This deficiency appears at the first growth stages of the plant. Farmers’ practical experience has shown that the UAB “Arvi fertis”fertiliser formulas created by technologists and scientists best match the physiological requirements of plants, and the selected complex production technology can enable the production of fast-absorbing forms of these complex fertilisers.
For many years, worldwide studies in agricultural chemistry have focused on the mineral nutrition of plants. A variety of plant fertilisation schemeshave been tested and developed.It is widely acknowledged that without fertilisers, and especially minerals, economically efficient farming is not possible. At various international conferences, agrochemical experts say that fertilisers can determine at least 50% of a plant’s crop potential, and in the future, the most important factor limiting plant productivity, will remain soil fertility.
For fertiliser producers and for farmers,the most important task is to preserve and enhance soil fertility and, in accordance with the local conditions, achieve maximum field crop productivity. Arvi fertis follows the recommendations of agricultural scientists and proposesthat farmers use fertilisers rationally (i.e. to spread only as much fertiliser as is necessary to receive the expectedhigh quality crop, while at the same time preventing the deterioration of soil properties and avoiding environmental pollution). This is possible to achieve by applying research-based fertilisation technologies, where the rates of the fertilisers are optimised for each farm or even each field, taking into account environmental factors and environmental restrictions.
The technologistsin our company take into account current scientific research, analysethe physiological processes occurring in plants and the microbiological processes occurring in the soil, and create formulas forfertilisers that exactly match the requirements of a plant and the soil. Arvi ferts professionals focus on producing fertilisers that areprimarily targeted at the maximisationof fertiliser efficiency.Today’s fertiliser industry produces millions of tons of fertilisers, but only some of these fully meet the agrochemical needs for crop production, and many of thosecommonly offered on the market are fertilisers with anunbalanced ratio of the most important nutritional elements.
Farmers often buy cheaper fertilisers, but by doing so they lose theability to meet the needs of plants and the soil.Analysing the current market, the ineffectivenessof standard fertilisers, with a ratio of the main nutritional elements at 1:1:1, was proven by their observed lack of agrochemical efficiencywhich reached only 25 to 30%. Research also shows the significant losses and negative impact on the environment, and the huge economic lossesfor farms. Therefore, Arvi fertis agro chemists and technologists, working together with scientists from Kaunas Technology University, Lithuanian Research Centre for Agriculture and Forestry, and A. Stulginskis University, have worked to increase the efficiency of fertilisers by modifying their chemical and physical properties.Sometimes it is not enough just to have acombination of the basic elements;fertilisers also need to containcertain micronutrients or bio stimulants.
Of course, farmers will ask whichfertiliser to choose in order to get the maximum results with the minimum cost? In recent years, Arvi fertis has created new forms of fertilisers which have an efficiency rate of 90% and more. After several years of continued research and field trials, we have created biologically active fertilisers, characterised by stimulatory properties forplants and microflora. The new generation of fertilisers has a positive impact on the soil, allowing it to accumulate biological nitrogen and phosphorus that then becomes available for plants. Biologicalfertilisers have the ability to inhibit pathogens in the soil, which is very important for reseeded wheat or sugar beets crops, and using these fertilisers, the soil and the crop products will not accumulate nitrates. Our company’s experts firmly believe that the new generation of fertilisers will substantially increase the economic efficiency of crop production.
Farmers know that Arvi fertis granulated complex fertilisers are notable for their superior mechanical properties, do not losetheir agrochemical characteristics during storage time, and are suitable for localfertilisation.Our new products created this autumn are fertilisers in micro-granule form, intended for ultra-local fertilisation. These can be used for the fertilisation of winter and spring crops, oilseed rape, corn, sugar beets, potatoes and vegetables, and can be inserted close to the seeds (at a0.5 – 1cm distance), with special micro-dispensers located on the sowing machinery. In this way, the evolving root hair system of the plant quickly absorbs the nutrients inserted with micro-granules, enabling theplants to grow and evolve faster. Using thesefertilisers, farmers will save not only money, but will also save time since the initial fertilisation rate barely reaches 20 to 30kg/ha.
While the fieldsare still hummingintensively with cereal crop harvesters, many farmers are already preparing for sowing. We have already discussed the growing popularity of winter rape crops. Now, the relevant farmers are asking what is the best type of winter wheat fertilisation? Farmers will always try to choose vigorous, fertile and frost-resistant varieties of winter wheat, but sometimes they do not take into account the fact that the productive varieties show their best features only after an optimal balancing of nutritional elements.Therefore, agrochemical specialists note that in many cases the crop grows more slowly than expected, and even more, often situations were observed where the cropvariety did not change at all. Sometimes for farmers, it is difficult to fully exploit the potential of new varieties due to a lack of knowledge. Also, sometimes a gap between the variety potency and the actual croparises.According to A. Stulginskis University associate professor V. Liakas, we should address the question: does this happen due to climate change, or is it due to crop productivity management?
The selection of forms of fertilisers and their usagerates for winter wheat isespecially importantforcultivation technology. Plant productivity and the crop quality are directly correlated to the plant’ssupply of nutrient elements throughout allof the growing season. It was found that one ton of winter wheatcrop consumes about 32 kg of nitrogen, 11 kg of phosphorus and 22 kg of potassium, as well as smaller amounts of secondary macronutrients and micronutrients.Experimental data showsthese amounts of nutritional elements are not available in the soil, so it is the best to use mineral fertilisers. These fertilisers are at their most effective when plants receive all the elements they need, but it should be remembered, future crops depend on the one restrictive factor: only the smallest amount of that element should be delivered, and that should exist in a form available for plants. Agricultural chemists found a long time ago that an unbalanced ratio of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassiumin the soil not only reduces plant productivity,but may increase the chance of infection diseases, and the overall quality of production will become worse.
Arvi fertis offers a very broad range of complex fertilisers for winter wheat that are already quite well known to farmers. The newest product this year is an initialfertiliseravailable in 1to 2 mm micro-granules, which are inserted with special micro-dispensers very close to where the wheat seeds are sown. Because a plant can reach all of these nutrients extremely fast, this accelerates faster growth of the root system and the evolving of the plant. This is the perfect fertiliser for innovative farmers, who care about the soil and about thriftiness. Why? Usually, in progressive farms, the soil is fertile enough. But, if theP2O5 and K2O in the soil is more than 150 to 170 mg/kg, we recommend inserting micro-granules of thefertiliser locally in the autumn, at the rate of20 to 30 kg/ha rate, and then in the spring, after anassessment of the condition of plants and in consultation with specialists, to spreadourNPK fertiliser. In less fertile soils, we recommend to spreading part of the planned NPKfertiliser during sowing time, and applying the micro-granule fertiliser locally. For traditional local fertilisation, all the usualformulas of “Arvi fertis” autumn complex fertilisers are available, including biologicalfertilisers (enriched with microorganisms or humic and fulvic acids).
There are also numerous options forfertilisation methods. For those who chose traditional fertilisationtechniques, we recommend spreadingfertiliser before the main soil tillage, especially when the simplified soil tillage machinery is used. Most cultivators will stir the soil 20 cm deep, and will evenly distributethe fertilisers. In less fertile soil, it is especially important to spread fertilisers in the autumn, allowing plants to become more resistant to the effects of the winter. Many years of scientific studies have shown that after fertilising with P60–100 K100–150 fertiliser, the root systems of winter wheat will evolve better when compared to plants fertilised witha minimal rate of the P20–60 K30–90fertiliser. After the wintertime, 55% more of the intensively fertilised plants survived, and after fertilisingat a lower rate less than 45% of the plants survived. Despite otherstructural elements of the harvest, the crop inthe more fertilised plots was 5.5 to 7.5 t/ha, whileafter the reduction of the fertiliserrate it was 3.5 to 4.5 t/ha.
Arvi fertis recommends a variety of compositions of complex autumn fertilisers for farmers, and a farmer’s choice will depend on the soil properties, the preceding crop of winter wheat, available varieties, fertilisationmethods, and other factors. Before making a decision it is worth asking for advice from the specialists in our company. An excess of fertilisation, that is not based on the physiological needs of the plants, can inhibit the biological activity of the soil, add to the acidity and worsen its structure. Therefore, in order to avoid mistakes, the most appropriate forms of fertilisers should be chosen. Only then will the most favourable conditions for their best use and for the health of future harvests be created.
Farmers are already starting to think about this year’s winter rapeseed crop. Autumn harvest time is about to begin, and it is time to get ready for winter rapeseed sowing. Every farmer understands that to achieve an optimal crop in local conditions, careful choices about plants should be started from the very beginning. It is considered that plants that are optimally developed and ready for the winter should have 8-12 leaves, with shoots close to the groundand roots deeply penetrated into the soil with a 10 mm thick root collar. These plants are easy to form in properly prepared soil, by selecting an optimal winter variety, and by sowing at the right time and with the required seed rate for local conditions.
Fertilisers play a very important role in this situation, and are one of the most important factors in the formation of the maximum productivity of the plants in various conditions. Rape requires a sufficient amount of nutrients. For every one ton of crop, it consumes about 60 kg of nitrogen, 24 kg of phosphorus, 50 kg of potassium, 10 to 15 kg of magnesium, and 16 to 40 kg of sulphur. Naturally, the rate of fertilisation should be selected by taking into account the richness of soil, the planned crop yield, the preceding crop and the sowing time.When sownat the optimal time, high fertility soils should be fertilised with a moderate amount of nitrogen. In lower fertility soils, and with delayedsowing, we recommend spreading about 25% of the planned nitrogen amount in the autumn. By taking into consideration nitrogen fertilisers that use the biological agents in the soil, the fertiliser rate can be reduced. Such a possibility appears by using biologically active Arvi fertis fertilisers (fertilisers with biological additives, such as microorganisms, humic and fulvic acids).
Often the biggest problems occur when farmers try to save on the expenseof phosphorus fertilisers. Nitrogen should be spread at the rate of 5 t/ha crop, and phosphorus and potassium spread 2.5 to 3.0 t/ha crop.Scientists have found that phosphorus is needed for the successful formation of roots in rapeseedplants.Rape consumes the maximum amount of phosphorus in the autumn, and potassium increases a plant’s resistance to adverse environmental factors and to frost. Recent research shows that if plants get enough potassium, theybecome more resistant to diseases and pests, and produce more nectar. Arvi fertis rapefertilisers are balanced in relation to these plant nutrition features. The NPP 5 – 15 – 25+ S and NPP 8 – 20 – 30+ S + Zn fertilisers are usually spread just before the main soil tillage or during the preparation of the soil for sowing. Very carefulfarmerscan spread these fertilisers on winter wheat at the panicle emergence phase, allowing for the nutrients to enter into the soil solution so that the rape plant can use them to a maximum effect. Those who have seed drills can insert “Arvi fertis” fertilisers locally.
In producing our company fertilisers, balanced nutrients are chosen, with phosphorus to ensure the evolving ofa strong root system, and to increase plant resistance to adverse winter conditions.Potassium participates in the formation of seeds in the pods, and can increase the mass of the seeds and their oil amount. Farmers, in order to save money and reach the maximum phosphorus efficiency, canalso choose fertiliserstreated with phosphorus-releasing bacteria.
The newest Arvi fertis products this autumn are initial fertilisersavailable in 1 to 2 mm micro-granules. These are intended for the local fertilisation of winter and spring wheat, rape, corn, sugar beets, potatoes and vegetables, in order to accelerate the growth of the root system and the rapid development of the plant.They are inserted with micro-dispensers very close to the seeds (at a distance of 0.5 to 1cm), so that plant roots receive the nutrients at the very beginning of growth, and plants grow evenly. Well-prepared compositions of fertilisers and their ingredients do not cause an adverse effect on seed germination, and increase the plant resistance to stresses (such as low temperatures, the spread of pathogens, and lack of the moisture or its excess). Being close to the seeds, the highly soluble phosphorus, ammonia nitrogen, sulphurand zinc will increase the efficiency of the initial fertilisation. As the result, the germination energy of the plant seeds is increased, ensuringfaster germination and optimal plant growth. It is enough to fertilise nutrient-rich soils in the autumn, together with seeds, at arate of 20 kg/hafor the initial fertiliser. In the spring, the fertilisation should be planned taking into account the conditions ofthe plants. Fertilisers in combination with the micro-granulesare also useful for those who want to save expenses and use traditional fertilisers with a 1:1:1 nutrition ratio. For maximum results, it is recommended that such fertilisers are spread during soil preparation, and the micro-granulesare then inserted together with the seeds.
Farmers are already starting to think about the sowing and fertilising of winter crops and rape. What makes the Arvi fertis” fertilisation philosophy different? First, these fertilisers are produced in the company to meet the specific physiological requirements of different plants, and it is possible to choose from a wide range of formulas, ensuring better preparation of plants for the winter season. Specialists advise paying particular attention to the significance of phosphorus, to evaluate the phosphoric absorption mechanism in the plants and its influence on the metabolic processes. Scientific investigations have found significant morphological, physiological, biochemical, molecular and even genetic changes in a plant, given a lack of phosphorus. In this context, our technologists are developing new, and are improving existing formulas of fertilisers. We have recently developed and tested fertilisers with biological additives, such as microorganisms and humic acid. Also, we have developed new initial fertilisers, intended to be inserted locally, together with the seeds.
Why is there so much focus on the availability of phosphorus? Phosphorus is an essential component of the plant molecules, and participates in energy transfer within the cells. Phosphorus also regulates and controls the most important enzyme reactions and the metabolism process. In many soils, phosphorus is scarcely available and is difficult to access in an organic or mineral form. When the phosphorus concentration in the soil is low, because it is one of the most difficult macronutrients to assimilate, it often becomes a limiting factor for crop yields.If a farmer is seeking optimal crop productivity, phosphorus cannot be ignored. Specialists say that, for the optimisation of plant nutrition, simply increasing the amount of phosphorus in fertilisers is not sufficient.
Arvi fertis specialists are working in two directions. First: they are increasing the accessibility ofphosphorus fertilisers for the plants. One such innovation is the use of phosphorus-releasing bacteria to coat thefertilisers. Second: they are increasing the efficiency of phosphorus assimilation. Studies have been performed associated with the physiological, biochemical and genetic aspects of plants, which regulate the plants’ phosphorus needs. Many people believe that plants adapted during evolution to the scarce-availability of phosphorus. However, in scientific articles we find evidence thatoutdoor plants react differently to the lack of phosphorus: the root systems change; the roots begin to secrete organic acids; biochemical changes take place in the plants, etc. Studies have clearly shown that phosphorus limits the productivity of plants and is a non-renewable element. Therefore, increasing the efficiency of phosphorus fertilisers is the priority of our company.
- Stulginskis University researchers have found that the seed crop increased by 44 % (0.62 t/ha) after non-fertilisation of winter rape with the PK fertilisers, and with fertilisationusingN90 and N170fertilisers. After fertilisation withaP80 K120 fertiliser, the difference increased to 66 % (1.8 t/ha). Every farmer has to decide whether it is worth usingfertilisers or not, but we think the best choice is to invest in fertilisers, because plant protection measures will only help to maintain already formed fertility. For “hungry” plants, chemicals do not help. The value of microelements is higher, as they help to absorb macroelements, but microelements will not help in improving minimal plant productivity.
It can be said that fertilisers create the most value–added plant products. Therefore, Arvi fertis has prepared a whole range of formulas forfertilisers to suit the different needs of plants. It is not feasible to use only phosphorus fertilisers, so our company’s specialists focus on the key elements of the plants according to their physiological needs. We recommend spreadingfertilisers before winter sowing, choosing one of the following formulas: NPK 6-18-34+S, NPK 5-15-25+S, NPK 8-20-30+S+Zn, NPK 10-20-20+S, NPK 8-24-24+S, NPK 10-20-10+S. Farmers can already use these fertilisers with wheat, because the nutrients will enter into the soil solution at the right time, thus allowing farmers to contribute to an increasein theirfertiliser efficiency.