Dena Hoff is a farmer and activist in eastern Montana, where she has raised sheep, cattle, alfalfa, and corn with her husband since 1979. Hoff is the North America coordinator for La Via Campesina-the 'international movement of peasants'-as well as vice president of the National Family Farm Coalition and former chair of the Northern Plans Resource Council.
La Via Campesina has been credited with coining the term 'food sovereignty.' Can you describe what this means and how your work supports and promotes it?
Food sovereignty is about a system of agriculture where people get to decide their own food and agricultural policies in their own countries, without being dictated by foundations or institutions like the World Trade Organization, the International Monetary Fund, the World Bank, or trade agreements. People decide what they're going to eat, who's going to produce it, and what's going to be produced. More than that, it's a whole life system that is sustainable, that respects Mother Earth, and that respects human rights and the rights of people to live in dignity, to be well-fed, to be reasonably taken care of, and to have a decent standard of living. Everything that food sovereignty encompasses is human rights, women's rights, and education; everything that makes a good life and protects the planet.
Via Campesina is a very large social movement. We're not a legal entity at all, but we are made up of groups around the world. We think that we have as many as 300 million members, though we've never been able to get a direct number. We're growing, growing, growing because people realize that we can only change the world into a place where everybody can live and a world where everybody wants to live by banding together, standing together, sharing each other's stories, and showing solidarity. We need to educate people: people who are not farmers but who, of course, are eaters, people who care about the environment, people who care about human rights and social justice and the environment-they need to be part of this movement. It's going to take everyone.
There are too few people who control the power, who control the resources, who control the wealth of the world, and the destiny of the rest of us. I don't like anybody pulling my strings. I am not a puppet. I am an independent human being, and I have wishes and dreams and fears for my own family, my children, my grandchildren, my nieces, my nephews, my community. And I want to see these things become reality, and I'm willing to just keep working forever.
The biggest part of that responsibility is educating other people and getting them to stand up to power, and that's a very difficult thing. People do not like conflict; people do not like to stand up to power. They have some idea that the people who are in power are smarter than they are and have something that they don't have-if only they knew that those people who are controlling their lives are just ordinary people!
Until we give people the confidence to take back control of their own lives and their communities, nothing is going to change. It's a big, big, task. But it should hearten people to know that there are millions and millions of people around the world who are very dedicated to doing this, and who are willing to do it.
What role does gender play in La Via Campesina's work?
Gender is extremely important, because most of the world's farmers are women. And a lot of those women are hungry women because they are the people who are being forced off land. They have no access to resources and no access to credit. We started a campaign in Mozambique at our Fifth International Assembly against violence against women, so we have that international campaign, and the young people have just taken it up. They have put on plays and they have dramas and they are doing literature and they are going around to communities and educating people on why it is so important that women have an equal voice, equal rights, and equal opportunities.
Gender balance is very important to us. There will never be any real equity in the world until women are seen as equal partners, standing shoulder to shoulder with men. One of our original seven pillars was gender. We also fought very hard in 2000 for gender parity on our coordinating committee, and we got it-we have a male and a female for each of the assigned regions. We have a lot of programs in a lot of countries for training women: in agriculture, in literacy, and also in political training, so that they have an understanding of what's impacting their lives. We also have programs that help them develop means of making a living, so it's very important.
What are some of the similarities between what's happening to agriculture across the world and what's happening here in the U.S.?
I belong to the Northern Plains Resource Council-that's my state organization in Montana. They have, for years, been trying to protect family agriculture, educate people about its importance, and protect it from energy developers and speculators. The National Family Farm Coalition has been involved since 1987 in policy work in Washington, D.C., trying to get a decent Farm Bill so that we can protect our family agriculture. But when you go lobby, you hear, 'We don't need American farmers. We can import everything cheaper.' Congressmen will actually say that to you.
My question has always been: If transportation, communication, and energy are a matter of national security, shouldn't food be a matter of national security? Shouldn't water be a matter of national security? Instead, it's just a commodity for someone to make money.
Land grabs happen in this country, too. In my neighborhood, groups of bankers or lawyers or investors are investing in farmland because I guess they think they're going to get a better return than on some other thing. And farmers have no recourse. I mean, no one here who wanted to expand or who wanted to help one of their children get started in agriculture, they can't possibly match those prices. The land is lost for agriculture. A great big and lovely farming ranch along the Yellowstone River went to a real-estate developer from Maryland who's now running for the legislature in Montana. Land is being turned into hunting or fishing places or little retreats. It's not being used for agriculture.
Look at what's happening in Detroit. They have torn down about 40 buildings in downtown Detroit. They're going to tear down about that many more. And there are a lot of vacant lots that can be used for urban agriculture. But, there's a big developer who wants to commercialize it for profits instead of the city giving the lots over to the community for urban farming. That's land grabbing, isn't it?
Why are large-scale land acquisitions, or land grabs, problematic?
It's problematic because there are a lot of places where land is owned communally, or there's not a deed to the land, and it's just land that communities have made their living with, in some places for over 1,000 years, maybe more. And suddenly, this has a value beyond somebody's livelihood, beyond somebody having to have food and shelter. And someone finds out they can make a profit, and they come in and take it.
Mali has put food sovereignty in their constitution. Their president leases large amounts of arable land to the Saudis for 10 years. That's totally against the constitution-it's totally illegal-but there doesn't seem to be a national or international mechanism to force governments to abide by their own laws and their own constitutions. It just seems like increasingly the world is a more lawless place, where anything goes if it makes money.
How does global agriculture and trade policy affect the environment, global hunger, and poverty?
We had all the hype about how industrial agriculture was going to end hunger, how GMOs were going to end hunger, and look what's happened: there are a billion hungry people, almost half a million of those are in the United States. Hunger is increasing, poverty is increasing, and all of the industrialization hasn't done one single thing to end hunger, and we've been destroying the environment. So the solution actually turned out to be very, very damaging-far more damaging than the problems that we had before industrial agriculture was proposed as the solution to hunger and the environment.
Look at the deforestation for biofuels in Brazil, the destruction of traditional agriculture in Indonesia in favor of palm plantations for biofuels. Shoving people off the land and forcing them to the cities where there are no livelihoods is not the solution. Or forcing them to become slaves as is happening all over the world. We like to think that we're in the 21st century, and slavery is something of the past. It isn't. It's worse. It's getting worse every day. There are so many examples of people being forced into slavery, literally having their livelihoods taken away from them because somebody else wants to make a profit off of the resources that they made a modest living with. And then, if they wish to survive, they can become practically slave labor for these people who just took away their livelihood. If that's not slavery, I don't know what the definition is.
Do you think there's any role for multinational corporations to play in improving the situation for farmers and peasants here and across the world?
I'm not sure that's the role they want. Their mission is their bottom line, to pay dividends to their investors. Their mission is not to do good. Their mission is not to protect the environment or nurture societies. They're doing what they're set up to do, and they've been given far too many rights and too much power. Equal protection under the law for a corporation? A friend of mine who was inside [the corporate world] used to say, 'What kind of craziness is that?' Corporations have no soul to save and no ass to kick and they are totally unaccountable to anyone.
What happens when they do something ugly that causes people to lose their lives? If I would do something accidentally like kill someone in a traffic accident, that would be manslaughter, I would be brought up on charges, I would have to suffer the consequences. You don't really hear about anyone in a corporation having to take responsibility for the lives they cause to be lost through their greed and negligence. They have the same protection as any individual, but I guess they don't have the same responsibility.
How could agencies like the World Bank and the UN Food and Agriculture Organization do a better job to support La Via Campesina's mission?
They could do a better job by ensuring that people in countries that need food aid have access to means of production, so they can feed themselves and not rely on charity-to make them self-reliant. Education, condemning the privatization of water, health care-the poorest people don't get those basic things, and they don't get basic services because they simply can't pay. There's all this hype about corporations being able to produce more, but producing more is not the answer. You can go to the markets in the poorest countries and you can see mountains of food, and people are starving to death right nearby. If they have no means to a livelihood, they have no means to feed themselves, and they have no means to make a living, then they can't buy food. There can be all the extra food in the world, but if they don't have money, they die.
How can people get involved to help La Via Campesina's efforts?
We always need people to hook up with our organizations in all of our countries and support legislation in those countries that will turn governments around, so they do the right thing for civil society and are not totally governed by corporations. We have six organizations in the U.S. that belong to Via Campesina. And we're always looking for people who can help with translation.
We want people to take an interest in the policies of their own countries, in the plight of family agriculture, family fishermen, migrant workers and landless workers, and get educated about what these people face. And also how it impacts you! Because even if you think you are isolated and insulated from all the trouble that's happening, it impacts everybody because everybody eats. Everybody eats!
If there are only huge massive plantations producing our food with basically slave labor, if workers have no rights, if the environment is just sneered at (because no one enforces environmental laws), if human rights are not protected, and if people are not well paid and allowed to be brought into the country illegally or otherwise and then just dumped if they're injured or hurt, that does not reflect very well on us as a society or as people, especially for those of us who like to be called 'good Christians.'
So much of La Via Campesina's work is about mobilizing people. What agricultural or economic policies do you think could be implemented to address the needs of small-scale farmers and agricultural producers in order to help create the change you envision?
Certainly a decent Farm Bill with a farmer-owned reserve, and a Farm Bill that actually gives farmers a price so that they can live and support their communities. It isn't just about farmers. The money they make supports an entire community, our states. And I think people need to understand the importance of agriculture to this country, and what happens to countries that let their agriculture go and depend on importing all their food from somewhere else. There are plenty of examples in the world of countries that can no longer feed themselves because somebody decided it was cheaper or more intelligent to buy all their food from somebody else.
Everybody has to become an activist, even if it's just educating themselves. Even if it's just making a phone call or planting a garden, or looking around and seeing if your neighbors are one of the one-in-eight people who are hungry. Be aware of what's going on around you!
Ronit Ridberg is a research intern with the Worldwatch Institute. Visit Worldwatch's Nourishing the Planet blog to learn more about the fight for food sovereignty in industrialized and developing nations.