Composting and Bio-Stabilization Technology
The urban house waste contains a big percentage of organic fermentable fraction coming essentially from the kitchen waste. This part can be collected trough the separated waste collection and used in the composting process to produce quality compost. Bio-stabilization means composting the unselected urban waste which can be mechanically separated into fine organic particles and into coarse waste particles(made by dry and inert parts). These two processes allow to eliminate the organic part of the waste from the traditional disposal channel (landfill and incinerator), in order to create an environmentally compatible waste management, which is also logistically an economically convenient. This process is also important because complies to the EU law 31/99, according to which it is no more possible to dispose the untreated urban waste into landfills.
Composting and bio-stabilization are two biological controlled decomposition aerobic processes of the fermentable waste fraction in order to obtain a biologically-stable product. Through composting it is possible to obtain a product (compost) rich of evolved organic part, called “humus”. With the bio-stabilization process is possible to obtain a particular product, denominated as “poor” compost, which is richer of heavy metals and has lower agronomical characteristics. The process is divided in two phases: The active phase (ACT: Active Composting Time), characterized by degradation processes of the fermentable parts. The maturation phase (curing phase), characterized by a reduced need of oxygen and by transformation in humus.
The production of Waste Fuel (fuel coming from waste)
The Bioe technology can use unselected waste to produce a bio-stabilized product, with the right percentage of humidity (from fine organic particles) without drying. From the coarse not fermentable waste particles it is possible to produce waste fuel, composed essentially by plastic or textile materials with high calorific power.
The Bioe technology and the stabilization of the final product
In a composting process it is very important to reach in short time a stable final product. This permits to reduce the plant surface dedicated to the process and the odours created by fermentable materials.
The input materials for a composting process
- Selected organic house waste: this matrix guarantees a very good and clean waste, very important for the final compost quality. It is characterized by an elevate biologic reactivity, a big percentage of humidity and a low structure.
- Green cuts: it is the wooden cellulosed part, complementary to the organic one, with low putrescence characteristics, low humidity an high structure. It comes from the public green and private garden maintenance.
- Sludge: it is the product of water treatment plants or from specific agro-industrial activities.This material has homogeneous characteristics during the time, such as high humidity, no structure and nutritive content. For this reason it is treated together with the green cuts to obtain porosity and structure.
Duration of the process
The ACT phase, which uses a big quantity of oxygen, lasts about 25-30 days. After this period it is possible to dispose the treated mixture outside to complete the maturation and humidification phases.
- Production of high quality fertilizer
- Outdoor treatment, without producing odours
- Faster process operations, as the material doesn’t receives temperature shocks from turning.
The input materials of the bio-stabilization process
- Unselected waste: bag opening required before starting the process
- Fine organic particles (undersieve) coming from mechanical separation: this part is very difficult to be treated because has poor structure. With the Bioe® technology it is possible to start the bio-stabilization process by giving attention to the relative humidity percentage.
Duration of the process
It is possible to obtain a stabile product (respirometric index ≤ 400 mg O2/kg v.s.*h, according to the IPLA method) in 15-20 days.
- Reduction of waste weight and volume (up to 40% in weight)
- Landfill collocation possibility according to the EU 31/99 law.
- Disposal in landfill without paying the eco-tax
- Big environmental impact reduction due to unselected waste.