Drip Irrigation is the most important irrigation system which is boosting the agricultural production. The traditional surface irrigation methods can only be applied in the evened areas. Also, the water is required to be abundant and appropriate to the irrigation as quality.
Well, how should irrigation be realized in the regions where the water is too little and salty? If the climate and land of these regions are appropriate for growing the plants having high economic value, that the water is problematic is of course not an obstacle. The plant having high economic value shall provide high incomes. For achieving this, the drip irrigation method which eliminates the water's problems has been developed. In this system, after the irrigation water is filtered and strained, it has been ensured that it has been given to the soil surface or inside it as drips with the dissoluble fertilizer or without fertilizer. It can be applied in the greenhouses in which especially the initial investment costs are high as it requires fewer workforces and gives opportunity to make automatic irrigation and in growing plants with high economic value.
Drip irrigation system;
- Can be used in all kinds of fruit gardens ( in the vineyard, banana, olive, kiwi, melon, water melon etc...),
- All kinds of plant (cotton, sunflower etc...) and flower cultivation,
- All kinds of vegetable cultivation (cucumber, eggplant, pepper, bean, potato etc...)
- Especially in the greenhouse areas in a problem-free way for many years.
Drip Irrigation system is used for watering valuable plants (vegetable,fruit etc.) which grows in light soil in regions that have lack of water or low quality water. For instance; used for watering valuable plants in east and south regions of our country in commercial growing of hothouse flowers and field of application increasing day after day.
Drip Irrigation system especially would prefering for watering plants which has flowers. Because watering by sprinkling system may cause losing flowers of plants and loss of efficiency in rainless regions. Because of flowers of plants are so sensitive against to external effects. Also economical usage of water adviced in rainless regions. Thats why drip irrigation system is used this type of producing.
Drip Irrigation system is applied easily for open and closed houthouse fields, fruit ranches, banch plants (like vegetable) and growing the primarily products which has high economic value. Drip Irrigation system is so flexible system to applying for enviroment devising of parks, highways, trade facilities and houses.It is using almost all of the fruit ranches. In recent years would prefering especially in vineyards.Because drip irrigation system provides the reducing to minimum unit broken that causes big problems and loss of efficiency on the grapes. And it is explained by the agriculture engineers Who is working on prevent this problem.Especially potato is much more sensitive against to water stress than other plants because of weakness in its origin system. The stress risk of potato plant is much more less in drip irrigation system according to the other systems. Some of the knowledge resources indicates drip irrigation system can use in growing sugar beet and wheat. Howewer this plants never adviced because of causes prohibitive costs in usage of drip irrigation system and need to be thick croping.
- Provides to watering possibility in any time of the day without depending on wind speed.
- Let the farming by little water applications witout acting stress on plants.
- Enegry dependency is little because of provides to watering under low pressure area.
- Provides to increase in efficiency and quality on product.(%20-90)
- Product becomes to ripen 2-3 week earlier.
- Cultural transactions executes muh more easily. Working fore demand reduces.
- Water loss becomes so little and water savings increaces around the %50 by surface flowing and vaporization.
- Also increaces the activities by applying together manuring and to apply disinfectant to land with watering.There is no burning of origin problem beucase of usage dilued compost solution.
- Provides a good air change for the land.
- It reduces the disease and rate of the development foreign plant because of There is nothing like damping all field.Workmanship cost to peck up the ground is low.
- Prevents the loss of ground and erosoin.
- It is easily applicable on downgrade.
- Causes less stiffening on the ground.
- It makes easier watering wide fields by very little flow. Setting and removing is easy.
- Effectiveness of practicable ground water increaces. Plants grows much more better. You have quality,fruitful and standardized product.
- The drippers placed by fixed distance in the pipe provides the water given to the origin of plant. The growth of the plant becomes orderly by provided continuous field capacity becuase of short discrete water transactions.
- It provides of successful usage of water recources even it has high degree of salt. And by the way the loss ration for plants reduces.
- You have %60 savings from compost and decontamination costs according to the classical irrigation systems.
- Loss of water benefit never happens because of surface flow and outflow to the depth prevented.
- It provides watering possibility even in the fields which hasnt enough water resources.
- It provides one time reaping possibility. Because of it gives equal water and compost sharing between plants and causes good reaping.
- Plant needs much more origin to get the water in the agriculture applications which applied by classical irrigation systems.
- Howewer plant doesnt need that in this system because of water given directly to the origin.And it prevents disease and bacteriums significantly.
- Drip irrigation system can be easily applied whenver wished in desired amounts according to the climate conditions, special demands of plants and its growth periods.
- Drip irrigation system never effected from wind, rugged grounds or thermal fluctuations such as other irrigation systems which is applying from top.It is 100% homogeneous so It provides equal watering possibility.
The system which consists of the tools and equipmen that provides the applicable of drip irrigation method called by drip irrigation system.The equipments of drip irrigation system divides three main groups.
1- Pressure and Control Unit :
- Water source
- Compost Pump
- Flow – Pressure measuring and regulatory equipments
2- Water transmission and distrubitom equipments (Pipes) :
- Main pipe line
- Side pipe line (Manifold)
- Dripper pipes (Lateral pipes)
1. Pressure and Control Unit: It provides the pressure to system working. Also It make sure give compost and other chemicals to the system by controling pressure and flow. Besides It provides the filtering water to prevent the stoppages in the system.
Water Source: It must be taken from a high place to provide watering. This pool might be from the water which is taken from underground by centrifuge pump or sources like river,lake etc. You can use any type of water source in drip irrigation system. But the water shouldn't contains alot of sand,sediment and foreign body.
Pump: Pump should be used for system working If the water source is not enough higher(15-20 m) than ground which will be watered. Mostly centrifuge pump used to be because of drip irrigation systems work under low pressure area(0,5-2,0 atm) and motor power requeirement is less. Centrifuge pump provides the minumum 0.1 atm pressure how much system reqires to start the working. For instance; 2.5-3 kw electric power is enough to working of pump which will be used to watering 80 decar fruit franch.
Compost Tank: Compost tank provides the give chemical composts to the system in solution version. It is used before filter in frip irrigation system. A part of water of system around the (1/3,1/4) mixed with compost irrigation water by passing this tank which has capacity around 25-100 liter when compost will be given to the system. Besides basic foods for plants applied mixing with irrigation water in drip irrigation systems. For this purpose liquid compost used. Compost tank to be attached on main pipe with hoses which has valves on itself from two places. One of them is necessary for water input and other one for water exit in compost tank. The valve on main pipe partly closed and input and output valves of compost tank opened when compost will be applied. In this a part of water in main pipe transmission to the compost tank provided in this way. In here water returns to the main pipe in mixed mode with compost.
Hydroa-Cyclone: It used to be in irrigation waters which has a lot of sand ration. It reduces stoppage risk in drippers by get the sand in water.
Filter: This is the most important part of drip irrigation system. Irrigation water passed in filter before given to the transmission equiments. In this way sand,silt,algae and solid particle in solution compost seperated from water. Two different filter preferred to use if there is large solids in suspension in water such as sand and silt. First one is in pump exit and provides to stop big materials. It is shaped like cylinder and filled with sand-gravel.It is also named sand filter. Second one is in the exit of compost tank and provides to filter chemical compound, algeas and so thin materials. Mostly formed by sieves which has 100-250 mes(material einkauf system). It is located in water tank exit to stop the solid particles that formed from compost. Sieves should be take aparted and cleaned after every irrigation transaction. The first filter may not be necessary if the water is clean and doesnt contain huge materials.
Flow - Pressure Measuring and Regulatory Equipments: Manometers and pressure requlators are located on suitable and needful places of control unit to know the flow out of water and keep under control system pressure. Manometer might be located on begining points of transmission and distrubition equipments If it is necessary.
2. Water Transmission and Distribution Equipments (Pipes): These are the equipments that transmit the water which is taken from pump and control unit to the drippers which is located around the effective origin region of plant.
Main Pipe Line: Main pipes transmit the water to the side pipe (manifold) line which is coming from source by passing in control unit. Mostly pipes used which is produced from brutal PVC or flexible PE material. Main pipes usually barried under ground in constant systems.
Side Pipe Line (Manifold): Transmits the water to the dripper pipes whish is taken from main pipe. Its specifications except the diameter are similar with main pipe. Its diameter mostly formed between 25 and 100 mm. It also barried under ground such as main pipe line according to the conditions. Sometimes, side pipe line goes over the ground surface in some systems. In this case soft polyethylene pipe used. The water may transmits directly to the side pipe line without main pipe line in the systems which has low capacity and small irrigation area. The pipes used in side pipe line which has diameter starting from 32 mm up to the 100 mm. In this case brutal pipe(PVC or galvanized) used.
Dripper Pipes (Lateral Pipes) : These are pipe lines are formed by pipes which is take the water from side pipe lines and gives it to the drippers by distributes it to the ground. These are also named by water distrubiton pipes or lateral pipes. Drippers are located on this pipes by determined distance(20 cm, 25,33,40,50 etc.). Because of that it is called like dripper line. Flexible polyethylene(PE) pipes or soft PVC pipes used.Its diameters are between 12 and 30 mm. It is adviced the lengths of the pipes should not exceed 100 m. But It could raise up to 300 m depends on system pressure, flow out and dripper distance. The version which goes over the ground surface used much more than the version which goes under ground.
3. Drippers: These are the equipments which transmits the water to the ground by almost zero flow out or no pressure cases. These are like a part of dripper pipes(lateral).It has specification that decrease both pressure and flow out. Because of that its diameters usually changes between 0.2-2mm. Two different principles used in decrease the pressure on drippers. One of them used for decrease the pressure by orifice and other one by loss of friction. Water passed in long way capillary pipes or swith-back(circular) flow enviroment for decrease the pressure by friction.
Drippers are two types according to positon on pipe so how dripper located on pipe: Pipe over (line over,online) drippers and pipe in (line in,inline) drippers. Pipe over drippers usually formed orificial and produced seperate. It is attached on the dripper with desired distances by a special equipment. It could be changed when it is broken. Besides hose could be attached to the exits of this by making multiple drop exit. In this way Drip points could be move far away from lateral. Pipe in drippers usually produced with switch-back(circular) dripper pipes or long way capillary dripper pipes.