Drip Irrigation is giving the necessary water and soluble nutriments at the time when it is required and amount needed to the root area of the plant as drips in a controlled way. In drip irrigation method, water is given frequently and in low amounts. Irrigation should begin before the earth loses its humidity and enough water for one day or couple days should be given to the plant. By this way, water stress that was happened because of lack of humidity in the earth or too much humidity will be prevented on the plant. Water will be given to the area where the plant roots will be grown up by drip irrigation method. By this way, high productive and quality products will be obtained from the good developed plant.
The Advantages of Drip Irrigation System
- Uniformity of Water Application: All the parts of the land receive the same amount of water and results in saving of water, power, and fertilizer.
- Water Placement: The water and nutrients are virtually hand-fed directly into the root of the plant, thus roads and rows between the plants remain dry and has major advantage in harvesting.
- Improved Disease Control: Disease control is enhanced in micro irrigation.
- Difficult Terrain: Difficult soil terrain condition can be overcome.
- Water Conservation: Water transmission losses are eliminated.
- Chemical Application Efficiency: Fertilizer and other chemicals are effectively applied into the root zone where they are needed.
- Improved Tolerance to Salinity: Concentration of salt is reduced and salts are moved away from the plant to the edges of the root zone.
- Energy: Significantly low operating pressure consumes relatively less energy.
- Increased Field: Soil moisture is maintained at field capacity to achieve maximum yield.
- Improved Quality: Slow regular and uniform application of water and nutrients result in even growth and ripening, producing a more uniform crop of a more consistent quality.
- Reduced Labor Costs: Labor requirements for micro irrigation systems are low because the low application rates allow larger areas to be irrigated to a time, and because these systems lend themselves to automation also to direct savings in labor.
- Saving in Weed Control: Saving of up to 35% of cost of weeding is possible because of accurate placement of micro irrigation.
Elements of Drip Irrigation System
Drip Irrigation System is formed in order by pumping unit, filtering unit, main pipe line, manifold (subsidiary) pipe lines, lateral drip pipe lines.
- Water Source: Any kind of water source can be used in drip irrigation method. But there should not be too much sand, sediment and floating objects in the water. And also water which contains too much calcium, magnesium, and iron compounds is not suitable for drip irrigation method.
- Pumping Unit: The operating pressure can be supplied by pump unit where the water source is not enough high positioned. Centrifugal, deep well or diver kind of pumps can be used depending on the type of water source.
- Filtering Unit: In drip irrigation, water is should be filtered very well before giving to the system. Otherwise, the drippers will be blocked. This treatment will be done by filtering unit. The pressure and amount of water given to the system will be also checked and soluble nutriments will be given to the water at filter unit.There are hydrosiklon filter, gravel filter, fine sieve filter, manure tank, flow-pressure measurement and arrangement items in filter unit.
- Main Pipe Line: It transmits the water, which is taken from the source and passed from filter unit, to manifold pipe lines. Generally HDPE pipes are used. They can be buried if necessary.
- Manifold (subsidiary) Pipe Line: It transmits the water from main line to laterals (drip irrigation pipes). They are also produced by HDPE pipes as the main pipe lines.
- Drip Irrigation Pipe (Lateral) Lines: They are produced specially and put drippers on them at the factories. These pipes which have drippers inside or outside are made of flexible polyethylene.
- Drippers: These are the most critical elements of the system transmitting irrigation water to earth with low pressure and controlled very low flow rate. Drippers are produced in two ways: on the laterals: namely on-line (inside the pipe) and off-line (outside of the pipe)