Enzymes - Kreb Cycle
Glycolytic enzymes and energy releasing pathways in animal and poultry nutrition all living things are made up of cells. Although most cells are invisible to the naked eye, they are in fact a universe of life, for the cell is the smallest unit that can carry out all life activities. The science of nutrition is a balancing act which involves supplying the nutrients required for lifestock to maximize it's genetic potential in the production of milk, meat or eggs while maintaining homeostasis within the cell, and therefore insuring long term health and productivity of the animal or bird. As livestock producers to accomplish this in a holistic fashion is essential for economic success, It is therefore important to understand the process involved in converting grain into energy for cellular work.
Glycolytic Enzymes Convert Starch To Glucose The conversion of starch in carbohydrates, such as grain, to glucose is the first step in this amazing nutritional journey. Actually this is a two step process, which involves two key enzymes alpha-amlylase and alpha-glucosidase , working together with less active beta-amylase and end-and-exo beta-glucanase. The first enzyme alpha-amylase hydrolyzes starch in grain to maltose, the second enzyme alpha- glucosidase hydrolyzes maltose to glucose. Enzymes are actually special protein molecules manufactured by the cell, and in the case of amlylase and glucosidase they are active in the digestive system. They are truly remarkable catalysts in breaking down specific chemical compounds for cellular energy. The rate of these important enzyme reactions are directly proportional to the amount of glycolytic enzymes present. Because cells only produce a fixed amount of these two enzymes they can become limiting factors in nutrition especially in high producing animals demanding the consumption of large quantities of carbohydrates. Therefore the addition of these two starch degrading enzymes to feed rations can have tremendous nutritional benefits. Once glucose is available to cells it can be used to produce energy by the process of aerobic respiration. Aerobic respiration is a multi-step process in which hydrogen is transferred from glucose to oxygen. During this process, the potential energy of the electrons from hydrogen atoms are used to liberate energy for all aspects of cellular metabolism.