Jojoba, [Simmondsia chinensis (Link) Schneider] is a new oil-producing industrial crop that has attracted much attention in recent years. Jojoba oil is unique in nature. No other plant is known to produce oil like jojobas. It is used in the cosmetic, medical, pharmaceutical, food products, manufacturing, and automotive industries (as lubricant). And it is a renewable energy resource. It is remarkable to note that, in spite of the variability in size or where grown, each jojoba seed contains an average of 50% pure oil by volume. Jojoba is native to the semiarid regions of southern Arizona, southern California and northwestern Mexico. Now Jojoba is being cultivated in Israel and Rajasthan, India to provide a renewable source of unique high-quality oil. Much of the interest in jojoba worldwide is the result of the plant's ability to survive in a harsh desert environment. Jojoba can be grown as an oil-producing cash crop. Jojoba is very drought-resistant and can be grown on marginal lands without replacing any existing crops. Fully mature shrubs or trees can reach a height of 15 feet with a potential natural life span of 100 to 200 years depending on environmental conditions. For optimum production, the crop needs irrigation, care, and a good cultivar.
Our technocrats believe that jojoba oil shows a lot of promise as an alternative source of fuel. It releases a lot of energy when it burns. The driving force to find such fuel source stems from the need to find an alternative fuel to petroleum oil. In addition to this, the jojoba renewable nature is attractive and can produce less pollution. Jojoba oil appears to be promising, also with promising scope for cultivation in the relatively hot weather Considering Jojoba’s potential as an oilseed feedstock for biodiesel, CJP has honor to establish this untapped resource as alternative source for Bio- Diesel industry of future.
About the Plant
Jojoba is a perennial, dioecious, evergreen shrub or small tree that lives under diverse environmental conditions. It has an extensive and deep root system and requires little care if maximum seed production is not desired. Jojoba is valuable as a soil conservation and landscape plant for highway shoulders, city parks, and other places that cannot afford much care. Jojoba (pronounced ho-HO-ba) is being cultivated to provide a renewable source of unique high-quality oil. Jojoba is a woody evergreen shrub that typically grows to a height of 10 to 15 ft. Leaves are opposite, oval or lanceolate, gray green, and have a waxy cuticle that reduces moisture loss. The plant develops one or a few long tap roots (up to 40 ft) that can supply water and minerals from far below the soil surface. Jojoba does not shed its leaves with the change in seasons.
Common Name: Jojoba
Latin Name: Simmondsia chinensis
Other Names: goat nut, deer nut, pignut, wild hazel, quinine nut, coffeeberry, and gray box bush.
Simmondsia chinensis is a leafy, xerophytic, woody evergreen dioecious shrub or small multi-stemmed tree that grows to a height of 0.5–1 m in the wild, occasionally to 6 m tall with taproots to 12 m long.
Leaves opposite, oval or lanceolate, grey green or bluish-green, leathery, oblong, opposite, 2.5–3.5 cm long and contain special tissue with a high concentration of phenol compounds.
Flowers apetalous, dioecious; the male flowers are yellow, larger, and occur in clusters with 10–12 stamens per flower; female flowers small, usually solitary in the axils or in clusters at the nodes, pale green with 5 greenish sepals, soft and hairy.
Fruits green capsules, ovoid, usually dehiscent with 1-3 seeds. Seed peanut-sized, dark brown, the endosperm scanty or absent
The jojoba plant is dioecious. The gender of jojoba plants can only be discerned from their flowers. When planted from seeds, jojoba plants can take up to three years to produce flowers. The female plants produce seed from flowers pollinated by the male plants. Seed production is generally limited until the fourth year of growth.
Jojoba is a native to the Sonoran Desert. Most natural populations exist only inside a quadrangle with Riverside (California), Globe (Arizona), Guaymas (Sonora, Mexico), and Cabo San Lucas (Baja California, Mexico) as its four corners, and comprise about 100,000 square miles between latitudes 25° and 34° North. These disjunctive jojoba populations occur from sea level to about 1,500 m altitude on coarse
The plant is drought resistant and to some extent also salt-resistant, ranging from warm temperate desert (with little or no frost) to thorn through tropical desert forest life zones. It grows best where the annual rainfall exceeds 300 mm, but does exist where less than 125 mm occur. Jojoba requires the most water during late winter and early spring.
It tolerates full sun and temperatures ranging from 0-47°C. Mature shrubs tolerate temperatures as low as -10°C, but seedlings are sensitive to light frosts just below freezing. Frost may not damage taller plants to the same degree, but it can reduce yield. Jojoba is very tolerant of high temperatures.
Soil texture is important as jojoba grows best in sandy or decomposed granite or rocky soils and slowest in heavy clay soils such as adobe. Even if the fertility of the soil is marginal, jojoba is still able to produce well without the use of fertilizers
Altitude: 0-1500 m
Mean annual temperature: 12-35ºC
Mean annual rainfall: 200-1100 mm
Soil type: Jojoba is usually restricted to well-drained, coarse, sandy or gravelly soils, well-aerated desert soils that are neutral to alkaline, with an abundance of phosphorus and pH of 7.3 to 8.2.
Agronomy:Jojoba Farming: CULTIVATION TECHNOLOGY
Jojoba has the distinction of being the domesticated plant successfully in desert of Rajasthan, India. The methods used by jojoba farmers in the past have been varied, as there were no real records of the performance of cultivated plants in existence. Subsequent research, however, has led to a greater understanding of the classic farming requirements for jojoba.
Jojoba has very promising scope for cultivation in the desert even in the relatively hot weather. Its nature withstands the hot weather in summer, warm weather in winter, low fertility of soil and low water resources. It needs less than one quarter the amount of water needed for olives with great ability to withstand the high salt in the soil. The payback for planting Jojoba is encouraging. To be used as fuel it needs to be cultivated in huge amounts which are easy in desert land in many countries.
Soil texture is important as jojoba grows best in sandy or decomposed granite or rocky soils and slowest in heavy clay soils such as adobe. Even if the fertility of the soil is marginal, jojoba is still able to produce well without the use of fertilizers. However, jojoba plants kept in containers seem to do better with some fertilization.
Irrigation systems are a must when establishing jojoba plantations whether by planting seeds or seedlings. The plants seem to do well on their own after two years of intensive watering in early winter and spring when the jojoba plant maximally utilizes water for growth. This watering period is a plus for the jojoba farmer as jojoba's water requirements will not conflict with the watering requirements for traditional crops. Under ideal conditions of soil, water and sun, the tap root will grow an inch a day; within two years the roots should reach the level of the aquifer thus enabling sufficient growth for seed production without supplemental watering.
In order to maximize production, it would seem advantageous to plant rooted cuttings from sexed plants which are known high producers or known to have seeds with high oil content. Rooting the cuttings takes a little bit of technical knowhow but it would be worthwhile to have a plantation with 90% to 95% female plants, leaving the 5% or 10% males to produce adequate pollen for all the female flowers.
Yield Potential and Performance Results:
Jojoba generally does not produce an economically useful yield until the fourth or fifth year after planting. Seed yields in natural stands of jojoba range from a few seeds to as much as 5 Kg of clean, dry seed per plant. Production of seed varies greatly from plant to plant in a stand and from year to year for a particular plant.
Currently, the average yield of commercial Plantations that were established with selected higher yielding clones is capable of producing 1 to 11 tons from 7th to 15th year per ha .
serial no.TIMEPRODUCTION/ PLANTPRODUCTION 2250 PLANTS/hectare
Above maintained production is expected, can vary according to climate conditions.
CULTIVATION OF JOJOBA BY SCIENTIFIC METHOD
•Selection of land
•Method and Rate of Seeding
•Preparation of land
•Manure and fertilizer
•Plantation and precaution
•Male and female Ratio
•Method for obtaining fruit
•Diseases and Their Control
•Insects and Other Predators and Their Control
•Drying and Storage
CJP carefully manages Jojoba Plant cultivation, with advanced crop practices suitable to local soil, weather, pest, and disease conditions to ensure the high amount of oil as we have developed enhanced technology with regards to:-
•Planting materials & other inputs
•Pest & Diseases management.
•Post harvest management
•And finally grading for further process
The key factors governing profitability of large scale production are:
it is assumed that jojoba is grown under conditions which are conducive to commercial yields. Frost is a limiting factor. Similarly, adverse rainfall and temperature conditions can limit the commercial production of the crop. Therefore, while it is evident that jojoba may survive in some more marginal areas, it is equally as evident that it is not likely to produce commercial yields.
CJP’s Researchers have developed standardized techniques for growing Jojoba Plant on large scale. CJP ensures Organic Jojoba plantation right from the land preparation, crop management to production of end product. CJP Jojoba oil Farms are under the vigilant supervision of agronomists, who make sure that the latest and best breed of Jojoba Plant, is being planted. However, we keep a close watch on the research results of Jojoba Plant breeding by studying thousands of Jojoba Plant variants, identifying and collecting the best sources of high-quality. This not only removed the uncertainty from the yield, it also provides multiple harvests within a few months. Accordingly, the enhanced variety of Jojoba with regards to seed yield and oil yield and the enhanced Jojoba Cultivation techniques may ensure proper and profitable production of the OIL CROP providing early fruition and flowering
CJP is happy to announce the market release of the Oil Crop “Jojoba Cultivation Technology” at an affordable Price
Jojoba Crop Information Growing & Care Instruction Manual and Monitoring & management system
The planting, looking after and harvesting plants is an important factor and it requires a lot of knowledge, skill and techniques viz: the best planting season to make the plant early matured, then an amount of seeds to be planted, an irrigation & fertilization method, a control method of weeds , investigate quality, yield, and degree of occurrence of several troubles .
As all biological organisms require care and attention, the need to draw Growing Instructions was being felt by all concerned
Therefore keeping in view Various concerns and problems of a new Grower; CJP being “The Centre of Excellence” has designed Jojoba Growing & Care Instructions Manual with Monitoring & Management System Diary on the basis of our own tried, tested, developed and experienced Plant Propagation and Cultivation Technologies and Practices to help you grow a Failsafe Jojoba Farm
The Jojoba Growing & Care Instructions manual provides basic guidance for the project developers to help ensure successful Jojoba planting projects.
Proper planning, planting and maintenance are the key for growing flourishing plants. Simply putting a plant in the ground is not enough. Careful thought must be given to the purpose of the planting, location of the planting and how the Jojoba will be cared for once they are in the ground.
A properly planted and maintained plant will grow faster and live longer than one that is incorrectly planted. This booklet is organized as a step-by-step checklist of fundamentals to help you with your Jojoba planting project
We have sincerely tried to put all steps in nutshell and hope it will be a useful tool in growing your Biodiesel Plantation
Agricultural Extension Kit
CJP has specifically developed and designed a unique kit for JojobaL plantation and crop care for 1 hectare called: “Agricultural Extension Kit” – a key to your fuel farm “just enables & encourages the farmers/ new growers to start the Biodiesel crop cultivation in a right and prefect manner by adopting the concept of “sustainable agriculture”.
Jojoba Starter Kit:
Jojoba Agri- Extension Kit contains
•SRIPHL JJ03 Elite planting stock for cultivation 0.5 acre
•an easy- to- follow growing and crop care instructions manual
•a very typical monitoring and management diary
JOJOBA FARM FRESH SEEDS
Jojoba is one of the finest cosmetic ingredients in the world. Its excellent inherent emolliency, moisturization and oxidative stability properties rank it as one of the top cosmetic lipid materials, natural or synthetic, in use today. Jojoba is sourced from the seeds of Simmondsia chinensis, which is a woody, evergreen, desert shrub being grown in Desert of India. Jojoba seeds are a dark, reddish-brown color and about 1.0 to 1.5 centimeters long
We offer to provide farm fresh high value JOJOBA Seeds with high oil
High Grade JOJOBA Oil
Simmondsia chinensis produces a marvelously consistent mixture of liquid esters.
Extraction of Natural Jojoba from seeds that are in optimal condition results in a very pure and clean initial product that requires minimal processing and/or refining to produce a very high quality, consistent end product.
After mechanical extraction, Jojoba is generally screened to remove tiny bits of sediment called “footes” and then filtered. With the pure, natural, golden grade, no further processing is needed after filtration and pasteurization, although for some endues applications removal of phospholipids is preferable. The jojoba is simply packaged for storage and shipment. This grade of jojoba has a golden-yellow color
We offer to provide High grade high value JOJOBA oil
An Economic Evaluation of Jojoba Farming
Economics of Production and Markets:
Successful long-term production of jojoba depends on improved yield and a strong market. Industry is typically hesitant to invest in new technology involving an agriculturally produced resource until a steady and continued supply of that resource can be demonstrated. The value of jojoba oil as an alternative industrial oil with multiple applications and as a replacement for non-renewable fossil petroleum has been demonstrated.
The jojoba bush has been proposed as a highly profitable new crop being grown in India, in Australia, in Egypt and in America. It can be grown in arid areas yields and growing costs to make estimates of the probability of jojoba growing -producing particular levels of profit needs to be examined in depth.
The cost of development of jojoba plantation including micro irrigation is Rs US$ 2000 per hectare. The cost of production of one kg of jojoba in US is Rs 2.5$, in Israel it is Rs 1.3$ and in India it is 0.5$. This low cost of production in the country gives it a competitive edge.
As the jojoba plant does not reach full maturity for about ten years and can survive for more than 100 years, the establishment of a jojoba plantation is a long-term investment which lends itself to cost-benefit analysis. Jojoba generally does not produce an economically useful yield until the fourth or fifth year after planting. Jojoba is a multiyear crop by plantation of this the farmer is saved from repeated sowing. The crop of it does not need dugging and watch and word. According to the opinion of agriculture specialist it can be cultivated with low water, fertilizer and pesticide. Neither stray cattle nor pet cattle eat its plant. Its good production gives very high income to the farmers as compare to the traditional farming
TimeProduction/ PlantProduction 2250 Plants/HectareCost Of Crop @ US$ 3/Kg.Crop CostIncome
Customized, Complete & Comprehensive Business Plan
We make the integration of our experience, expertise and professional knowledge with your information and formulate customized biodiesel business plan. In undertaking this Technical & Financial Inputs assessment, we shall have relied on Primary inputs supplied by you, our IPR knowledge & research experiences and expertise in the field; on industry experts and secondary information derived from recognized public sources and via CJP's database and multi-client reports.
CJP can help clients identify the needs, opportunities and solutions of their local, regional and national markets. By identifying these needs and providing management direction, CJP can help in creating a perfect business plan in order to develop and manage an effective and successful biodiesel facility. The most critical component of any business plan is the pro forma, an educated view or projection of what the performance of a company is capable of, given a specific set of assumptions and conditions. CJP has been involved in identifying these needs for specific projects for a number of years and can help develop a realistic and obtainable:
•Assumptions Governing the Projections
These projections will be valuable in determining feasibility of the project, securing financing, attracting investment and guiding management so that the company can reach its full potential.For detailed Cost-Benefit Analysis of Jojoba Growing and For a detailed quote for a complete and comprehensive Jojoba Farming Business Plan from Farming to fuel, kindly mail to email@example.com