Rain Water Harvesting
The rapid expansion in development of ground water resources for varied usage has contributed in expansion of irrigated agriculture, overall economic development and in improving the quality of life in India. The speedy and uncontrolled usage of ground water has also created many problems. The intensive ground water development in many parts of the country has resulted in depletion of ground water levels and availability of the resource. The pristine ground water quality too became its victim.
Mitigation: Water harvesting
Rain water harvesting is the technique of collection and storage of rain water at surface or in sub-surface aquifers, before it is lost as surface run-off. The augmented resource can be harvested in the time of need. Artificial recharge to ground water is a process by which the ground water reservoir is augmented at rate exceeding that under natural conditions of replenishment.
To overcome the inadequacy of waters to meet our demands.
To arrest decline in ground water levels.
To enhance availability of ground water at specific place and time and utilize rain water for sustainable development.
To increase infiltration of rain water in the subsoil which has decreased drastically in urban areas due to paving of open area.
To improve ground water quality by dilution.
To increase agriculture production.
To improve ecology of the area by increase in vegetation cover, etc.
Cost of recharge to sub-surface reservoir is lower than surface reservoirs.
The aquifer serves as distribution system also.
No land is wasted for storage purpose and no population displacement is involved.
Ground water is not directly exposed to evaporation and pollution.
Storing water underground is environment friendly.
It increases the productivity of aquifer.
It reduces flood hazards.
Effects rise in ground water levels.
Mitigates the effects of drought.
Reduces soil erosion.