John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

A survey of neonicotinoid use and potential exposure to Northern Bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) and Scaled quail (Callipepla squamata) in the rolling plains of Texas and Oklahoma

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Northern Bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) and Scaled quail (Callipepla squamata) populations have seen a dramatic decline in the Rolling Plains ecoregion of Texas and Oklahoma, USA. There is a rising concern for the potential toxicity of neonicotinoids in birds. To investigate this concern, we examined crops of 81 Northern Bobwhite and 17 Scaled quail to determine the presence or absence of three neonicotinoid (clothianidin, imidacloprid, and thiamethoxam) treated seeds. We did not find any treated seeds in the 98 crops examined. We collected liver samples from all 98 quail and analyzed them for neonicotinoid residues. Analysis revealed very low concentrations of neonicotinoids within the quail liver samples. Our study suggested there is little to no risk of direct toxicity of neonicotinoids to quail. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved

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