John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Biological responses of Vicia faba seedlings to the imidazolium‐based ionic liquid 1‐hexyl‐3‐methylimidazolium chloride in soil

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Although there are a few studies on the toxicity of ionic liquid (ILs), relatively little is known about the toxic effects of these liquids in the soil on plants. In the present study, the toxic effects of 1‐hexyl‐3‐methylimidazolium chloride ([Hmim]Cl) in the soil on Vicia faba (V. faba) seedlings and the influences of [Hmim]Cl on the physicochemical properties of the soil were studied. The organic matter content, pH and conductivity of the tested soil were significantly altered at [Hmim]Cl concentrations greater than 1000 mg kg−1. Moreover, the shoot lengths, root lengths, dry weights and pigment contents of the V. faba seedlings were greatly inhibited when the [Hmim]Cl concentration was greater than 500 mg kg−1. The roots were the most seriously affected organ and stopped growing at 3000 mg kg−1. Additionally, [Hmim]Cl caused an increase in the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) at [Hmim]Cl concentrations above 250 mg kg−1 that resulted in lipid peroxidation, DNA damage and oxidative stress in the V. faba seedlings. Moreover, this study provides some information for evaluation of the environmental safety of ILs in soil. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved

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