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Changes in physico–chemical characteristics of mandarin (common Mediterranean cultivar) Chiotiko (Citrus deliciosa Tenore) from Chios Island in Greece - evaluation of antioxidant capacity and flavonoid content of citrus peels

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The objective of this study was to evaluate the changes in physico–chemical parameters of mandarin Mediterranean common cultivar Chiotiko (Citrus delicioza, Tenore) during ripening up to full maturity, from different regions of Kampos in Chios Island, Greece. Samples were collected from four different regions: Panagia Evreti, Talaros, Lolodentra and Kardamada from selected producers. According to empirical knowledge the date of harvest for Panagia Evreti is mid November followed by the regions with the order mentioned above. Harvesting started on the 7th of October (221 days from full bloom) when fruits were immature (still small in size and green), and finished on the 1st of February (337 days from full bloom) next year when mandarins were fully mature and started losing their quality. Weight of the fruits, juice content and chemical parameters such as, brix, pH, acidity, TSS:TA ratio and the percentage of saccharose were evaluated. Moreover, the antioxidant properties and phenolics content of mandarin peel extracts were determined. Polyphenol's total content was 91.28 ± 2.20 mg/g tannic acid equivalents, flavonoid total content was 4.35 ± 0.12 mg/g rutin equivalents, TEAC value 19.86 as mmol Trolox equvalents/100 g DW.

Keywords: mandarin juice, brix, acidity, saccharose, antioxidant capacity, TSS:TA ratio, Greece, physicochemical characteristics, Chiotiko, flavonoid content, citrus peels, fruits weight, juice content, mandarins, mandarin oranges

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