John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Clothianidin in agricultural soils and uptake into corn pollen and canola nectar after multi‐year seed treatment applications

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Limited data are available on the fate of clothianidin under realistic agricultural production conditions. This is the first large‐scale assessment of clothianidin residues in soil and bee‐relevant matrices from corn and canola fields after multiple years of seed‐treatment use. The average soil concentration from 50 Midwest US corn fields with 2 to 11 years of planting clothianidin‐treated seeds was 7.0 ng/g, similar to predicted concentrations from a single planting of Poncho® 250‐treated corn seeds (6.3 ng/g). The water extractable (i.e. plant bioavailable) clothianidin residues in soil were only 10% of total residues. Clothianidin concentrations in soil reached a plateau concentration (amount applied equals amount dissipated) in fields with 4 or more application years. Concentrations in corn pollen from these fields were low (mean: 1.8 ng/g) with no correlation to total years of use or soil concentrations. For canola, soil concentrations from 27 Canadian fields with 2 to 4 years of seed treatment use (mean = 5.7 ng/g) were not correlated with use history, and plant‐bioavailability was 6% of clothianidin soil residues. Average canola nectar concentrations were 0.6 ng/g, and not correlated to use history or soil concentrations. Therefore, under typical cropping practices, clothianidin residues are not accumulating significantly in soil, plant‐bioavailability of residues in soil is limited, and exposure to pollinators will not increase over time in fields receiving multiple applications of clothianidin. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved

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