Keywords: EU environmental taxes, Dutch glasshouse horticulture, covenants, renewable energy, European Union, environmental policy, The Netherlands, tax exemptions, voluntary environmental agreement, technological innovation, incentives, cost competitiveness, agricultural development policies, globalisation
Environmental policies for agriculture in Europe
This study analyses the environmental policies in Europe and particularly in The Netherlands. Comprehensive analysis of their policy package, which includes environmental taxes, tax exemptions, and the voluntary environmental agreement are provided. Each method does seem to show significant effects to reduce the environmental bads. This paper also presents an economic analysis of the glasshouse horticulture industry in The Netherlands, focusing on direct and dynamic effects, where direct effect refers to strengthening the cost competitiveness of the industry and dynamic effect refers to the incentives on technological innovations.