Heterosis decreasing in hybrids: Yield test inbreds
Yield testing finished inbreds to replace preliminary single-cross corn (Zea mays L.) yield tests will increase rate of commercial hybrid yield gains. Studies have shown that heterosis decreased 25%/50 yr, 10%/60 yr, and 35%/100 yr. Natural selection and artificial selection by plant breeders for adaptedness have increased parental inbred and hybrid seed yields, whereas percentage heterosis decreased. Four studies have shown inbred yields increased 1.9 to 3.5 times faster than heterosis yields. Pioneer Hi-Bred generates 700 new inbreds tested in 6000 single-cross hybrids at 15 to 20 locations annually. Predicted, untested, newer hybrids are then made and tested extensively with commercial hybrids. Parental inbred yield testing is the next to last of several steps in hybrid development. Commercial hybrid development costs have increased logarithmically, whereas performance has increased linearly. Replacing preliminary testcross trials with finished-inbred yield trials is more efficient. About 12,000 new finished inbreds can be evaluated annually with no testers and at least 50% fewer locations per inbred with the same testing effort as 700 new inbreds with testers. A calendar year per breeding cycle and annual production costs for 6000 hybrids will be saved. Corn yield trials detect stress susceptibility, which is more apparent in inbreds than in hybrids. Evaluation of more new inbreds will be conducive to increased genetic diversity that produces higher-yielding hybrids.