Integrated composting and vermicomposting: a boon to industry for waste clearance
The industrial bio-solid waste management is a global problem which has become even more challenging due to rise in population, industrialisation as well as changes in standard of living. Different waste management options, particularly landfill and incineration have potential adverse effects on environment, health, soil and biodiversity. There are little potential problems of environmental exposures from composting and vermicomposting and very little from recycling. A combine thermophillic composting and the vermicomposting approach bring the advantages of both the process and have been raised as a sustainable means for the proficient utilisation of the agro-industrial processing wastes. And thus, waste gets converted into worth added products which help in recycling organic matter back into the soil to maintain soil structure and richness. Carbon and nitrogen mineralisation and their ratio reflect the degree of maturity of vermicompost and can be a useful tool for quantifying the impact of various organic and inorganic wastes on soil properties. This review focuses on the balanced C:N ratio and supplement used with different agro-industrial wastes which have been tested for bio-degradation in yesteryears as a means of addressing the environmental pollution concerns.
Keywords: C:N ratio, vermicomposting, industrial waste, biodegradation