John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Trenbolone causes mortality and altered sexual differentiation in Xenopus tropicalis during larval development

0
Trenbolone is an androgen agonist used in cattle production and has been measured in aquatic systems associated with concentrated animal‐feeding operations. In this study, the authors characterized the effects of aqueous exposure to 17β‐trenbolone during larval Xenopus tropicalis development. Trenbolone exposure resulted in increased mortality of post‐Nieuwkoop–Faber stage 58 tadpoles at concentrations ≥100 ng/L. Morphological observations and the timing of this mortality are consistent with hypertrophy of the larynx. Development of nuptial pads, a male secondary sex characteristic, was induced in tadpoles of both sexes at 100 ng/L. Effects on time to complete metamorphosis or body sizes were not observed; however, grow‐outs placed in clean media for six weeks were significantly smaller in body size at 78 ng/L. Effects on sex ratios were equivocal, with the first experiment showing a significant shift in sex ratio toward males at 78 ng/L. In the second experiment, no significant effects were observed up to 100 ng/L, although overall sex ratios were similar. Histological assessment of gonads at metamorphosis showed half with normal male phenotypes and half that possessed a mixed‐sex phenotype at 100 ng/L. Hypertrophy of the Wolffian ducts was also observed at this concentration. These results indicate that larval 17β‐trenbolone exposure results in effects down to 78 ng/L, illustrating potential effects from exposure to androgenic compounds in anurans. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. © 2012 SETAC

Customer comments

No comments were found for Trenbolone causes mortality and altered sexual differentiation in Xenopus tropicalis during larval development. Be the first to comment!