Under composting or composting is the decomposition of organic matter by decomposers (microorganisms, annelids, isopods and other small animals). The end product of this process is called compost (componere Latin, composed). compost has a high content of nutrient elements such as phosphorus, potassium and nitrogen. Compost has a high water storage capacity so that plants survive droughts better. Overall, the application of compost is an excellent method of soil improvement and enables sustainable soil management. The application of compost promotes the development of a healthy soil life and has a high stability in the soil result.
- reduced costs as compared to other types of treatments
- and beyond the legal framework for the recycling of waste biogenic origin.
Key objectives of the separate collection of organic wastes with subsequent decentralized composting (waste treatment), the production of high quality compost and thus the return of organic matter, carbon, nutrients and minerals in the natural cycle. , the decentralized composting and recycling regional cycles has in Austria established itself as an integral part of the waste and material flow management.
Composting is the biological degradation and transformation of organic wastes and residues under aerobic conditions (with oxygen). Result of the process is compost, which is used as soil conditioners and fertilizers. 's biological waste composting has a high priority. Around 50% of household waste is organic waste that can be recycled by way of composting and are made usable. 600,000 over the composting organic waste to be recycled in Austria today. Compost is the oldest and most natural fertilizer and soil conditioner that we know.
It is made from organic residues of the household and the garden. It makes a significant contribution to maintaining the health of the soil and plant nutrition. Every garden owner should compost. The compost provides a meaningful recycling of organic waste represents a good successful compost is the most important and best fertilizer for the soil, the soil organisms and plants. Waste Management Our current waste management is focused on the separate collection of waste and recycle. Since the introduction of separate collection of organic wastes was in many states a clear strategic vote for the promotion of home gardening or composting and decentralized composting . The main motive was the protection of resources in the areas of transport, collection logistics, plant capacity, soil improvers and substrates on peat and mineral consumption.
In the states were in the process of establishing the early 90s, the national associations of the Working compost and biogas established and offered specific training programs for farmers and grants required (training for compost skilled in the art) and subsidies for construction and machinery. A special feature of decentralized, small-scale solutions, the composting of separately collected biogenic waste by farmers represent that use the compost produced mainly on their own agricultural land - the so-called Agricultural Composting . This model has been in Austria as the only European country (!) as a major factor prevailed in biological waste management and proven. these experiences are passed on as before Europe to interested parties.
After 8 to 10 years of separate collection of the organic content was in the residual waste from 30 are on average 11 to 23%, depending on various surveys, reduced. But is not essential, the relative proportion, but the absolute specific amount per capita or household due to the ever-changing overall composition of the residual waste. And here already shows that, while EW-1a-1 exist with values 10-55 kg of large regional differences, however, a considerable success for the separate collection may be attributed.
Composting is the measure to the organic waste for soil improvement and fertilization purposes may be made available. Just lately, an attempt is made to produce all energy and often overlooks the fact that already in use in the composting potential. sole with a thermal recycling (incineration) Go the potential benefits of organic waste material completely lost. Both composting and anaerobic digestion use these potentials, however, in the overall and are clearly efficient recycling method. , the thermal recycling of bio-waste is not in a position to make a significant contribution to climate protection. Our professional composting of separate collection and subsequent agricultural use of compost as a fertilizer and soil renewal, however is a precautionary response of equally relevant environmental issues of biodiversity, soil fertility, protection of soils against erosion and pollutants. A recent study, authored by the EPEA International Environmental Research yields the following results:
- The thermal utilization of biowaste is not in a position to make a significant contribution to energy neither supply nor to climate
- Biological method of organic waste treatment and above all the quality and quantity of composting have an outstanding ecological potential in areas other than the climate
- The separate collection, professional composting and agricultural recovery from bio-priority
The cited study has a total for the environmental benefits of composting of organic waste and justifies the intensification of separate collection for optimal treatment in composting plants and optimal application in agriculture. The burning destroyed entirely, however this significant ecological potential of bio-waste.