Forest Establishment Services

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Once the objectives of the new forest have been considered and species to be planted selected, it is time to begin the practical side of the site development.

Scrub Removal
The first activity is the removal of any unwanted scrub such as furze or brambles to keep the area of unplantable land to a minimum. This is usually carried out by a tracked excavator with a grading bucket.

Firebelt
Many sites, especially those on peaty soils, require a fire-belt of 6 meters in width to be established around the boundary of the site. An excavator is used to remove all the vegetation from this area. The fire-belt will prevent slow creeping ground fires from spreading into the plantation and will also permit easy access to aid the fighting of fires. It is important that these fire-belts are kept clear of vegetation at all times.

Ground Preparation
Most sites require some sort of ground preparation, which will increase the survival rate of the planted trees, and improve the drainage on the site. The three most common types of ground preparation are:

Mounding - This is the most common form of ground preparation. An excavator with a mounding bucket digs drains, at 6, 8 or 12m intervals, and places the spoil in mounds at the relevant spacing for the intended species. Mounding enables the site to be intensively drained and provides the newly planted tree with an excellent growing environment.
Ripping - A ripper is attached to a tractor and is pulled over the site in straight lines 2m apart. The ripper cuts through the grass and breaks up the soil to a depth of about 60cm. Ripping is commonly used on sites where there is an iron pan present or on soils which are free draining but have become compacted or poached.

Ploughing - An agricultural plough is pulled by a tractor over the site at 2m intervals, turning over a ribbon of sod and soil. The trees are the planted into the raised ribbon of soil, which provides an area of localised drainage and a weed free environment.<

Fencing
If a site is not already fenced it is very likely that it will require some sort of protection from cattle, sheep, deer or rabbits/hares. The best time to erect any fencing is before planting commences, so that trees are being planted into a protected environment. Fencing is one of the most expensive elements of site developments and should therefore be carefully considered.

Planting
After the initial ground preparation and site development it is possible to proceed with the planting of the site. It is essential at this stage to spend time with the planting contractors to ensure that the trees being planted are healthy, the correct species are planted in the right place and that the trees are well planted. Trees should be planted so that all roots are covered but not so deep that the stem bark is likely to rot. Each tree should be well firmed in so there are no air pockets around the roots.

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