Springer

Copper distribution in chemical soil fractions and relationships with maize crop yield

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Abstract
Agricultural practices can lead to copper accumulation in soils and at high concentration it can become toxic for plants. One common toxic effect of copper on plants is a decrease of crop yield. Here, we studied 1) the crop yield of maize grown on plots of a soil intentionally enriched with copper sulphate and 2) the possible relationship between the copper concentration in chemical soil fractions and the maize crop yield. Anthropogenic copper is mainly bound to manganese oxides, to iron oxides and to the organic matter. Maize ( Zea maize L.) was grown on outdoor experimental plots. The crop yield was evaluated for three development stages: the 6–10 leaf stage, the female flowering stage and the maturity stage, 2, 4 and 6 years after the soil copper enrichment. Strong crop yield reductions, proving a toxic effect of copper on maize growth were noted 2 years after the copper input at the maturity stage and 4 years after the copper input at the 6–10 leaf stage. Variations in maize crop yield are described with linear multiple regression equations including the variable copper content in soil, and other variables when needed such as soil pH, soil organic carbon level and the climatic variables, the precipitation rate and the ambient temperature. The crop yield study at the 6–10 leaf stage and at the female flowering stage does not provide significant regression equations, while the crop yield study at the maturity stage does. Request variables for the models are the total copper content or the copper bound to the organic matter and the meteorological data.

Keywords: Copper, Maize yield, Sequential extraction, Agricultural soil, Regression models

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