Foliar Iron Fertilization of Peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch): Effects of Iron Compounds, Surfactants and Other Adjuvants

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Experiments to assess the capability of different combinations of iron (Fe) compounds and adjuvants to provide Fe via foliar application to Fe-deficient plants have been carried out. A total of 80 formulations containing (1) one of five Fe-compounds [FeSO4·7H2O, Fe(III)-citrate, Fe(III)-Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), Fe(III)-Diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA), Fe(III)-Iminodisuccinic acid (IDHA)], (2) a surfactant (Mistol, alkyl-polyglucoside1 or alkyl-polyglucoside2), and (3) an adjuvant (glycerol, methanol or glycine–betaine) were studied with respect to leaf wetting ability and surface tension. From the initial formulations only 26 resulted in adequate leaf wetting, 20 with alkyl-polyglucoside2 and 3 each with Mistol and alkyl-polyglucoside1, and some of them (four with alkyl-polyglucoside2, one with Mistol, and three with alkyl-polyglucoside1) were found to have inadequate surface tension values for use as foliar fertilizers. In a second experiment, 20 formulations containing alkyl-polyglucoside2 and one each of the five Fe-compounds and adjuvants listed above, were used for a foliar experiment with Fe-deficient peach trees [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] grown under field conditions. Iron-deficient shoots were sprayed only once and leaf re-greening was assessed over 6 weeks for leaf chlorophyll content (via SPAD measurements) and percentage of green leaf area (via image analysis). Foliar Fe application always resulted in leaf Chl increases, although different degrees of re-greening were observed for the various Fe-compounds tested. Best results were obtained after treatment with formulations containing (in a decreasing order): Fe(II)-sulfate, Fe(III)-citrate, Fe(III)-EDTA, Fe(III)-IDHA, and Fe(III)-DTPA. A positive effect of adding glycerol, methanol or glycine–betaine was often observed, although the effect depended on each Fe-containing compound, indicating the existence of significant interactions between spray components. Results are of importance while trying to critically evaluate the potential of Fe sprays as a viable strategy to remedy plant Fe deficiency under field conditions.

Keywords:  Foliar fertilization - Foliar sprays - Iron chelates - Iron chlorosis

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