Availability of iodide and iodate to spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) in relation to total iodine in soil solution
A greenhouse pot experiment was carried out to investigate the availability of iodide and iodate to soil-grown spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) in relation to total iodine concentration in soil solution. Four iodine concentrations (0, 0.5, 1, 2 mg kg−1) for iodide (I−) and iodate (IO3−) were used. Results showed that the biomass productions of spinach were not significantly affected by the addition of iodate and iodide to the soil, and that iodine concentrations in spinach plants on the basis of fresh weights increased with increasing addition of iodine. Iodine concentrations in tissues were much greater for plants grown with iodate than with iodide. In contrast to the iodide treatments, in iodate treatment leaves accounted for a larger fraction of the total plant iodine. The soil-to-leaf transfer factors (TFleaf) for plants grown with iodate were about tenfold higher than those grown with iodide. Iodine concentrations in soil solution increased with increasing iodine additions to the soil irrespective of iodine species. However, total iodine in soil solution was generally higher for iodate treatments than iodide both in pots with and without spinach. According to these results, iodate can be considered as potential iodine fertilizer to increase iodine content in vegetables.
Keywords: Biofortification - Iodide - Iodate - Spinach - Soil solution