Fog and precipitation chemistry at a mid-land forest in central Taiwan
We analyzed fog and bulk precipitation chemistry at a cloud forest in central Taiwan where mountain agriculture activities are highest. There were 320 foggy days (visibility <1000 m) recorded between April 2005 and March 2006. Fog was most frequent between April 2005 and July 2005 and in March 2006 (153/153 d) and least frequent in January 2006 (21/31 d). The total fog duration was 2415 h, representing 28% of the sampling period. Compared with bulk precipitation, fog was disproportionally enriched in NO3– and SO42– relative to K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, and NH4+, resulting in higher a content of nitric acid and sulfuric acid than weak acids or neutral salts and, therefore, higher acidity (median pH, 4.9) in fog than in bulk precipitation (median and mean pH, 5.5). The very high input of NH4+ (47 kg N ha–1 yr–1) through bulk precipitation suggests that the use of fertilizer (ammonium sulfate and animal manure) associated with mountain agriculture has a major impact on atmospheric deposition at the surrounding forest ecosystems. The input of inorganic N reached 125 kg N ha–1 yr–1 and likely exceeded the biological demand of the forest ecosystem. Sulfate is the most abundant anion in fog at Chi-tou and in precipitation at various forests throughout Taiwan, suggesting that the emission and transport of large quantities of SO2, the precursor of SO42–, is an island-wide environmental issue.