Study on the reuse of zamyad factory wastewater treatment plant effluent in irrigation
Water shortage is one of the main obstacles in development of green areas in many countries especially in those which have less amount of water. Considering growth and expansion of communities and cities along with industrial development, green areas development is also necessary. In developed countries together with industrial development, applied studies on reusing treated wastewater have been done. In 1889 for the first time, treated wastewater was used for the irrigation of the green areas in San Francisco (Mathan, 1997). Then with more essential conception of using treated wastewater in agriculture, green areas and gardening, big success was achieved in Panama city in California state in 1929 (Xie, and Kuffner, 1993). In recent decades with impressive progresses made in wastewater treatment, water produced in this way is more wanted. On the average, 60% of wastewaters in United States are reused (Harury, 1997). 432 million cubic meters wastewater is treated in the state of California, 260 million cubic meters of which is used in agricultural activities (Pescod, 1992). The same activities were begun in Japan in 1968, and in 1996 more than 13 million cubic meters treated wastewater were reused in agricultural activities (Taniyama, S. and Adachi, 1999). In the Middle East, considering water crisis, investigations on reusing the wastewater have begun. Pioneer countries are Morocco, Jordan, Pakistan, Oman and Saudi Arabia (Arabi, et at., 1996). In Mediterranean countries due to population increase and periodic drought, municipal and agriculture authorities are considering the reuse of treated wastewaters.